Archive for the ‘Hormones’ Category

Study: Androgenetic alopecia in children: report of 20 cases.

Saturday, October 8th, 2011

Br J Dermatol. 2005 Mar;152(3):556-9.
Androgenetic alopecia in children: report of 20 cases.
Tosti A, Iorizzo M, Piraccini BM.
Source

Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 1, 40138 Bologna, Italy. tosti@med.unibo.it
Abstract

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in adults. Although there are differences in the age at onset, the disease starts after puberty when enough testosterone is available to be transformed into dihydrotestosterone.

We report 20 prepubertal children with AGA, 12 girls and eight boys, age range 6-10 years, observed over the last 4 years. All had normal physical development. Clinical examination showed hair loss with thinning and widening of the central parting of the scalp, both in boys and girls. In eight cases frontal accentuation and breach of frontal hairline were also present. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by pull test, trichogram and dermoscopy in all cases, and by scalp biopsy performed in six cases.

There was a strong family history of AGA in all patients. The onset of AGA is not expected to be seen in prepubertal patients without abnormal androgen levels. A common feature observed in our series of children with AGA was a strong genetic predisposition to the disease. Although the pathogenesis remains speculative, endocrine evaluation and a strict follow-up are strongly recommended.

PMID:
15787828
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15787828

Study: The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: biochemistry and relevance to public health.

Friday, July 1st, 2011

-:: This Abstract is posted here for posterity and archival purposes only ::-

Thyroid. 2002 Oct;12(10):867-78.

The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: biochemistry and relevance to public health.

Zimmermann MB, Köhrle J.

Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland. Michael.zimmermann@ilw.agrt.ethz.ch
Abstract

Several minerals and trace elements are essential for normal thyroid hormone metabolism, e.g., iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc. Coexisting deficiencies of these elements can impair thyroid function.

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Iron deficiency impairs thyroid hormone synthesis by reducing activity of heme-dependent thyroid peroxidase. Iron-deficiency anemia blunts and iron supplementation improves the efficacy of iodine supplementation.

Combined selenium and iodine deficiency leads to myxedematous cretinism. The normal thyroid gland retains high selenium concentrations even under conditions of inadequate selenium supply and expresses many of the known selenocysteine-containing proteins. Among these selenoproteins are the glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase, and thioredoxine reductase families of enzymes.

Adequate selenium nutrition supports efficient thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism and protects the thyroid gland from damage by excessive iodide exposure.

In regions of combined severe iodine and selenium deficiency, normalization of iodine supply is mandatory before initiation of selenium supplementation in order to prevent hypothyroidism.

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It’s About Insulin Control

Tuesday, May 24th, 2011

Insulin has been dubbed the “hormone of death” by Life Extension Foundation.

Insulin/IGF signaling itself may mediate communication among various tissues to influence organismal longevity.

Not fat, neither calorie restriction per se, insulin is what matters when it comes to longevity.

Reduction of fat mass without caloric restriction can be associated with increased longevity in mice, possibly through effects on insulin signaling. In the Insulin Levels and Life Span Studies article below, you will see a study titled “Extended Longevity in Mice Lacking the Insulin Receptor in Adipose Tissue”, the genetically altered mice (with fat cells unresponsive to insulin) ate all they wanted (55 percent more food than the control mice) and remained thin, they had 70 percent less body fat than the control group.

The genetically altered mice lived 18 percent longer than the control mice.

I found two main camps, one in favor of fat restriction the other calorie restriction. What is at play in my opinion is insulin. When calorie restriction helps with life extension it is actually the insulin control that is increasing longevity.

Insulin release is stimulated in response to grain, starch and sugar consumption.

I’ve posted various articles here on the harmful effects of sugar you might want to check out.

These are other articles relating to insulin: (more…)

Trace elements content and hormonal profiles in women with androgenetic alopecia

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2010 Dec 15.
Trace elements content and hormonal profiles in women with androgenetic alopecia.
Skalnaya MG, Tkachev VP.

Russian Society of Trace Elements in Medicine, Zemlyanoy Val str., 46, Moscow 105064, Russia; ANO “Centre for Biotic Medicine”, Zemlyanoy Val str., 46, Moscow 105064, Russia.

It is well-known that some trace element imbalances play a significant role in the pathomechanism of many forms of alopecia. Androgenetic alopecia, however, is a specific local sensitivity of hair follicle receptors to androgens.

In a clinical and laboratory study, 153 women with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and 32 control women were examined. In AGA patients telogen hair and vellus hair (miniaturization, D<30μm) significantly differed in frontal and parietal hair comparison with occipital area (20±0.9% vs. 12±0.5% and 33±0.9% vs. 12±0.6% respectively).

In the AGA group levels of androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone were higher than in the control group. Hair elemental content, analyzed by ICP-MS, demonstrated a lowered Cu and Zn content in the frontal area in comparison to the occipital area. It is important to note, that the AGA patients with elevated levels of androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone presented an increased Cu content and decreased Mn, Se, Zn contents in the occipital area of scalp. The occipital level of Cu positively correlated with the concentration of free testosterone in the serum.

A negative correlation between the Zn content in the occipital area and the dehydroepiandrosterone level in the blood was found.

Unfortunately, a routine treatment course of AGA patients, including topical inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase and minoxidil, had no effect on the Cu hair content in occipital and frontal areas.

However, there were positive changes in the morphological structure and other trace element contents. These data led us to hypothesize a key role of Cu metabolism disturbances in the AGA onset, development of AGA, and potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of AGA.

Evidence of increased DNA methylation of the androgen receptor gene in occipital hair follicles from men with androgenetic alopecia

Monday, May 9th, 2011

Br J Dermatol. 2011 Mar 24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10335.x. [Epub ahead of print]

Evidence of increased DNA methylation of the androgen receptor gene in occipital hair follicles from men with androgenetic alopecia.

Cobb JE, Wong NC, Yip LW, Martinick J, Bosnich R, Sinclair RD, Craig JM, Saffery R, Harrap SB, Ellis JA.

Department of Physiology, University of Melbourne, Victoria Australia 3010 Developmental Epigenetics, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria Australia 3052 Department of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria Australia 3065 New Hair Clinic, 627 Chapel Street, South Yarra, Victoria Australia 3141 National Hair Institute, 104 Canterbury Road, Middle Park, Victoria Australia 3206 Environmental and Genetic Epidemiology

In order to compare and clarify the underlying hormonal basis, a study was conducted in 12 young women (ages 14-33) and 12 young men (ages 18-30) with AGA (Sawaya and Price, 1997). Androgen receptor, type I and type II 5x-reductase, and cytochrome p-450 aromatase, were measured in hair follicles from scalp biopsies of these young subjects. Both young women and young men had higher levels of type I and type II 5x-reductase and androgen receptors in frontal hair follicles compared to occipital hair follicles; however, the levels in women were approximately half the levels in men (Sawaya and Price, 1997). At the same time, young women had much higher levels of cytochrome p-450 aromatase in frontal follicles than men who had minimal aromatase, and women had even higher aromatase levels in occipital follicles. The differences in aromatase, which is capable of converting testosterone to estradiol, are particularly notable. The findings of this study suggest that the milder expression of AGA in women may in part be the result of lower levels of 5x-reductase and androgen receptors in frontal follicles of women compared to levels in men; additionally, higher levels of aromatase in women may result in increased local formation of estradiol from testosterone, and less formation of 5x-reductase products such as DHT.

Gaia Adrenal Health Supplement

Monday, January 31st, 2011

Adrenal fatigue is strongly linked to hair loss.

If you are always tired, or easily irritable or have other adrenal fatigue syndromes consider this supplement.

Quote:

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Find it here: http://gaiaherbs.com/products/detail/5/Adrenal-Health

Find it on iHerb: http://www.iherb.com/Gaia-Herbs-Adrenal-Health-with-Holy-Basil-and-Rhodiola-120-Liquid-Filled-Capsules/18657?at=0 and http://www.iherb.com/Gaia-Herbs-Adrenal-Health-with-Holy-Basil-and-Rhodiola-60-Liquid-Filled-Capsules/15384?at=0

Swanson vitamins also has this.

Alternatively you could take one or more of the ingredients found in this supplement individually such as:
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The Patterned Baldness Multifactorial Model: Hormonal-Immune Interactions

Monday, January 3rd, 2011

During research into male pattern baldness, so called androgenic alopecia, I found an abstract of a study published in April of 1999 that talked about AGA and the “sensitivity to the male sex hormones” relating to the androgen metabolism model. This abstract went further and mentioned a lesser-known model referred to as the “multifactorial model”.

In this model, “hormones affect the hair follicle in a way that causes it to be perceived as a foreign body by the immune system, which then mounts an attack.” [15] This study suggests hormonal/immune interactions. The immune system is usually looked at in cases of Alopecia Areata but not AGA. The topic of Alopecia Areata is beyond the scope of this paper.

The author believes further research is needed to better determine the extent of hormonal/immune interactions on MPB.

The above was written on July 22, 2010

The Patterned Baldness Non Androgen-Dependent Model

Monday, January 3rd, 2011

More recently, on May of 2010, a study published by the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in the UK titled “Female pattern hair loss in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome” showed a puzzling finding, namely that women with complete insensitivity to androgens still exhibited AGA.

This is stated clearly in this quote: “We describe female pattern hair loss occurring in a patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome suggesting that mechanisms other than direct androgen action contribute to this common form of hair loss in women”. [30]

This study shows that other factors besides androgens and androgen metabolism maybe at play here.

The above was written on July 23, 2010

The Patterned Baldness Estrogen Metabolism Model

Monday, January 3rd, 2011

An abstract of a study published in October of 2006 titled “The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source” argues that estrogen also alters hair growth by binding to estrogen receptors (ER’s) and that estrogen alters androgen metabolism (AM) in the follicle. [25]

The study team, expressed their view aptly when the said: “that the time has come to pay estrogen-mediated signaling the full attention it deserves in future endocrinological therapy of common hair growth disorders.”

During the research for this paper, the author found a few references discussing the importance of the ratio between estrogen and androgen in AGA cases.

The above was written on July 23, 2010






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Dermal Papilla Androgen Sensitivity, Androgen Receptors & Methylation

Thursday, December 30th, 2010

Due to the understanding of male pattern baldness as Androgenic Alopecia (i.e. as an androgen-dependent process), many studies have focused on androgen metabolism (AM) in the body and how androgens effect hair.  Studies have shown that “all dermal papilla cells from androgen-sensitive sites contain low capacity, high affinity androgen receptors.” [18]

The dermal papilla (DP), at the base of the hair follicle, has androgen receptors (AR’s) that androgens from the blood bind to. In androgen-sensitive follicles, the androgens are synthesized and diffused over small distances; this induces changes in neighboring cells (like keratinocytes cells) in what is known as “paracrine interactions”. The diffusible proteins are called paracrine factors. [18]

When beard and scalp cells were incubated in androgens, androgens stimulated the cells’ ability to triggered mitosis (cell division) in beard cells but not in scalp cells. The interesting outcome here was that incubation with androgens had the exact opposite effect on scalp cells; these (scalp) cells’ mitogenic capacity was inhibited. [18]

Androgen-sensitive follicles are not simply targeted and affected by androgens; they are actually involved in androgen metabolism (AM) and can convert androgens using steroid-producing (steroidogenic) enzymes, also known as intrafollicular steroidogenic enzymes. [25]

A 2004 study shed more light on specific processes that shorten the hair cycle (that occur within the DP). According to the study, the three processes are as follows: “(1) the conversion of testosterone to DHT by type II 5-alpha-reductase; (2) the synthesis of TGF-beta2 in dermal papilla cells; and (3) the activation of the intrinsic caspase network.” [6]

The research seems to indicate AM activity at the DP of the hair follicle, amongst other interactions is not fully understood yet. Some of the known intrafollicular steroidogenic enzymes found in the DP are: Steroid Sulfatase (STS), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17b-HSD), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3b-HSD)  and type 1 and 2 5alpha-reductase (type 1 and type 2 5alpha-R). Type 2 5-alpha-reductase has been the target of a number of studies that showed it to accelerate the conversion of free testosterone into DHT. [10] [11] [12] [24] [25] [28] [31]

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