Archive for the ‘Salt’ Category

Salt Loading

Wednesday, June 8th, 2011

Taking iodine will chelate the other halogens. Salt loading can be used to increase the excretion rate of Bromide and minimize detox side-effects often experienced when supplementing with Iodine. Some of these detox (actually tox) symptoms are brain for, neck pain, bumps on forehead (bromine pimples)..

Chloride in salt binds with Bromide in the blood stream and then carry it out through the kidneys.

Unrefined Celtic sea salt, which contains a large variety of mineral salts, is best for detoxification, although table salt can be used if Celtic salt is not available to alleviate detox symptoms.
The Salt Loading Protocol:

1- Take 1/2 a teaspoon of unrefined Celtic sea salt in 1/2 cup of warm water.

2- Drink 12 ounces of purified or clean water.

Repeat this every 45-minutes until your first urination.

Discontinue salt loading after side-effects abate.


Do not force yourself, this does not taste bad, if you find yourself gagging water it down more or add salt to food.

If your goal is to get rid of bromide, reduce brain fog and other halogen tox symptoms (due to the detox), but rather not follow the salt loading protocol, I recommend upping your Sea Salt intake, just drink plenty of water.

I recommend taking potassium if you find yourself upping the salt intake. Potassium should preferably be apple cider vinegar (ACV). Without potassium, hair “might” suffer.

Is Salt Good of Bad?

Wednesday, June 8th, 2011

Doctors and dietitians, along with the USDA dietary guidelines, and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend eating a diet low in sodium to prevent hypertension, risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke; most allopathic doctors place their patients on low-salt diets, they have since the 1970′s.

Not all salts are created equal. Many in the “Raw Food” movement (which has some great ideas to offer) shun salt away and even call it a poison. They fail to differentiate the different types of salts, table salt might be thought of as poison (or unhealthy) while other salts that are healthier do exist. Some salts actually increase mortality as I will show below.

Salt is an essential nutrient, unlike sugar, people ate salt for eons. Historically, humans recognized it’s importance enough to use it as currency. Its reputation is found in phrases like “Worth his/her salt,” or “Not worth his/her salt”  since people were often paid in salt. In fact, the word salt is derived from the Latin salarium, or salary. In fact, you could die without salt. Like I said, you need salt, “the right kind of salt”.

Mainstream, table, restaurant, shaker and processed food salts are often mixed with anti-caking agents, many avoid salt all together in order to avoid these added chemicals. Salt takes a large portion of the mainstream American awareness. People think it is an unnecessary additive, and guided by their allopathic doctors and government dietary guidelines they seek products that are salt-free. The situation with salt is very similar to that with fat, most Americans seek fat-free products failing to recognize that not all fat is bad.

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Like fat, salt is an essential nutrient to life. The food industry might have transformed most of the salt into an unhealthy form of salt, but this is not to say that salt is bad. This is the case with fat, protein, rice, etc.. Many foods that are very healthy and essential become denatured and poisoned when commercially processed and packaged.



Got The Sugar Blues? Duffy Has Good News!

Tuesday, May 31st, 2011

I recently completed reading a book titled Sugar Blues by William Duffy, I picked it up at a closeout sale at a Borders bookstore for half price. I like this one, learned a few things from it and have since recommended it to a few friends. I also have largely gone on a sugar-free experiment. I also recommend you read this book, it’s a classic diet book, yet it sounds as if it was written a couple years ago, there might be a few outdated bits and pieces but again, this is a classic worth reading and has a wealth of insight to offer you. I had reduced my sugar intake for a few years, seeking to be “moderate”, this book is actually helping me far “very easily” resist sugar. I am almost sugar free these days. I appreciate the history in this book, you will learn about the history of sugar, and other things like fermenting, sauerkraut and beer. You will learn how sugar was invented, and you will be reminded that unlike salt (so essential people used it as currency in the past) sugar is a relatively new addition to our diet. This book touched me in a positive way, and I feel it will do the same with you. You just might never look at food and eating the same way again! all good positive things!

Well, what else does the book talk about? Duffy makes it clear how he dislikes how sugar is labeled (or not labeled) on products and how it is inaccurate to lump refined sugar with other healthy carbs under the same label name. See, not all carbs are the same, but a food label doesn’t tell you that, nor does it say how much added sugar is in a product. You might be surprised to learn what I learned about brown and raw sugar products, and what they put sugar in (ketchup, mayo, dressing, etc), you’ll read about sugar and the persians, indians, crusades, and even slavery! The book is easy to read as well, well documented and sourced.

Knowing what I know now, it is difficult to allow myself to eat sugar, and I have this book to thank. This books acts as an anti-sugar vaccine or an anti-sugar booster shot. If you crave sugar simply read this book and you will no longer crave it!

Sugar is not a nutrient, it is not empty calories either, it is actually an anti-nutrient, when you eat it you are eating something that takes away vitamins from your body to rid itself of sugar.. thus Duffy defines it as a poison, and I see why.


Trace elements content and hormonal profiles in women with androgenetic alopecia

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2010 Dec 15.
Trace elements content and hormonal profiles in women with androgenetic alopecia.
Skalnaya MG, Tkachev VP.

Russian Society of Trace Elements in Medicine, Zemlyanoy Val str., 46, Moscow 105064, Russia; ANO “Centre for Biotic Medicine”, Zemlyanoy Val str., 46, Moscow 105064, Russia.

It is well-known that some trace element imbalances play a significant role in the pathomechanism of many forms of alopecia. Androgenetic alopecia, however, is a specific local sensitivity of hair follicle receptors to androgens.

In a clinical and laboratory study, 153 women with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and 32 control women were examined. In AGA patients telogen hair and vellus hair (miniaturization, D<30μm) significantly differed in frontal and parietal hair comparison with occipital area (20±0.9% vs. 12±0.5% and 33±0.9% vs. 12±0.6% respectively).

In the AGA group levels of androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone were higher than in the control group. Hair elemental content, analyzed by ICP-MS, demonstrated a lowered Cu and Zn content in the frontal area in comparison to the occipital area. It is important to note, that the AGA patients with elevated levels of androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone presented an increased Cu content and decreased Mn, Se, Zn contents in the occipital area of scalp. The occipital level of Cu positively correlated with the concentration of free testosterone in the serum.

A negative correlation between the Zn content in the occipital area and the dehydroepiandrosterone level in the blood was found.

Unfortunately, a routine treatment course of AGA patients, including topical inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase and minoxidil, had no effect on the Cu hair content in occipital and frontal areas.

However, there were positive changes in the morphological structure and other trace element contents. These data led us to hypothesize a key role of Cu metabolism disturbances in the AGA onset, development of AGA, and potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of AGA.

International Symposium on Residues and Toxicity of Bromide

Saturday, September 4th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-

To learn about the symptoms of Bromide toxicity note the bolded lines below



In the first paper of this symposium Dr Greve
discussed the advantages and disadvantages of methods
for the analysis of bromide. Moreover, data were
given on residues of bromide in food and feedstuffs
and on the daily intake of bromide residues by
humans. The average daily intake in The Netherlands
was estimated in two total-diet studies in the summer
of 1976 and the winter of 1978. The average bromide
content in the total diet was 3.6 and 3.2 mg/kg for the
first and second study, respectively. Based on these
levels and the food intakes, the estimates of daily
bromide intake were 7.8 (range 3 15) and 7.6
(1.8 17.2) rag/person/day. These data showed a good
agreement between summer and winter diets.
The paper further gave an account of residue data
from classified food items and feedstuff samples. In
general, the residues were either low (~ 1 mg/kg food)
or medium (c. 5 mg/kg food), but occasionally high
residues (>~200mg/kg food) were found in certain
leafy vegetables or herbs. The main source of the high
residues was treatment of soils with methyl bromide.
The following paper, by Drs Wegman, Hamaker
and de Heer, was concerned with studies on the
bromide-ion balance of a polder district where there
was large-scale use of methyl bromide for soil fumigation.
The concentration of bromide ion was determined
in precipitation, surface water and ground
water, in which the maximum concentrations were
found to be 0.98, 41 and 17 g/m 3, respectively. The
highest concentrations of bromide in surface water
were found during the main fumigation season in
During a one-year period (September 1979 August
1980) a bromide balance was computed for the polder
district, Delfland, based on the supply and discharge
of bromide from the polder area. The use of methyl
bromide contributed 222 Mg (Mg = 1000 kg) to the
input of bromide ion in the polder district. This
corresponded to 68~o of the total input of bromide
ion (325 Mg). On average over a year about 15~o of
the applied methyl bromide (1500 Mg, calculated as
bromide) was converted to bromide ion. Corrective
measures have since been introduced. The former use
of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sheeting has
been banned and from 1981 a more gas-tight sheeting
has had to be used. This allows for the use of a third
of the earlier dose of methyl bromide.
The paper dealing with ecotoxicological studies on
sodium bromide, presented by Drs Canton and
Wester and Mrs Mathijssen-Spiekman, was an
example of the broad nature of the papers presented
at this symposium. The acute toxicity of bromide for
fresh-water organisms was studied in four species: an
alga, a crustacean species (Daphnia magna) and two
species of fish, an Oryzias and a Poecilia. In other
studies an effect on reproduction was found both in

Daphnia and in the fish Poecilia, the guppy. Histopathological
examination in the long-term studies
revealed no effect in the Oryzias. In the Poecilia
several histological changes were found, notably
concentralion-related thyroid hyperplasia, myopathy
and regressive changes in the female reproductive
The thyroid changes are of special interest in
view of the subsequently discussed findings in the rat.
The NOEC x (LC(EC)25/LC(EC)50) value, suggested
earlier as an index for water quality based on
ecotoxicity, was estimated to be 1 mg bromide/litre
using as the criterion reproduction in the test with
Poecilia. Concentrations found in surface water frequently
exceed this value and it is claimed that levels
can be so high that acute effects might be expected.
As a general toxicologist, I have the feeling that the
fact that the ecotoxicological studies were performed
in closed vessels should be taken into consideration
when interpreting the environmental importance of
the studies.
Dr Rauws entered the field of mammalian and
human toxicology. His overview of the pharmacokinetics
of the bromide ion included a general
discussion of the use and usefulness of pharmacokinetic
studies in toxicology. The similarity of
bromide to chloride gives rise to an important pharmacokinetic
interaction. Both ions compete for reabsorption
in the kidney tubules. Because of this
competition, high chloride reabsorption will lead to
higher bromide excretion and vice versa. This has
been experimentally confirmed. The biological halflife
of bromide can be decreased by administration of
chloride. Conversely, the normal half-life of bromide,
in man 12 days and in the rat 3 days, may be
increased by a salt-restricted diet. In experiments by
Rauws and the late van Logten the bromide half-life
in the rat could thus be prolonged to 25 days by
ingestion of a salt-free diet with tap water
. It was
found that the plasma bromide level could be
influenced considerably by a low-chloride diet.
Two further findings should be mentioned. First
the effect of chloride depletion can be mirrored in
that the same plasma-bromide level can be obtained
with much less bromide in the diet; secondly the
foetus appears to be more accessible to bromide than
the mother and elimination from the foetus is retarded.
The next three papers discussed, in detail, the toxic
effects of bromide ion in the rat. The first paper by
Drs van Leeuwen and den Tonkelaar and the late Dr
van Logten dealt primarily with effects on the endocrine
system and reproduction. This contribution
provided a comprehensive discussion of the effect of
bromide ion in the rat. In a 90-day oral study the dose
levels used were 0, 75, 300, 1200, 4800 and
19,200 mg/kg in the diet and a complex of changes in
422 Summary and the endocrine system was observed. The effect on the
thyroid, an activation, was the most prominent. In
the highest dose groups, different effects were noted;
e.g. atrophy of the testes and an effect on the prostate
occurred in male rats, while in females a reduced
number of corpora lutea were found. A threegeneration
reproduction study carried out with the
same dose levels revealed a decrease in fertility in the
two highest dose groups. This effect was, however,
reversible on withdrawal of the bromide.

On the basis of the effect on the thyroid in the
90-day study (an increase of relative organ weight
down to 1200 mg/kg diet), a no-effect level of 300 mg
sodium bromide/kg was established. This corresponded
to 240 mg bromide ion/kg diet, equivalent to
12 mg/kg body weight. By application of a safety
factor of 100, a tentative ADI of 0.12mg/kg is
suggested. This figure will be considered again in
connection with the study on human volunteers.
In the 90-day rat study reported here and in
previous studies there were indications of a more
general effect on the endocrine system. Further studies
in the rat were performed to elucidate the effect of
bromide on the thyroid, including studies on a
chloride-depleted diet. The effect on thyroid function
was studied using several parameters, including
thyroxine concentration in the serum and uptake of
radiolabelled iodine by the thyroid. The effect was
complex and will not be discussed further in this

A study was undertaken by Drs Loeber, Franken
and van Leeuwen to elucidate the effect of sodium
bromide in the rat. Sophisticated techniques of histopathology
and clinical chemistry were employed,
including immunocytochemistry (Franken) and
radioimmunoassay (Loeber). Male rats were fed 0,
20, 75, 300, 1200 or 19,200mg/kg diet for 4 or 12
weeks. At the end of the experiments the pituitary
gland, thyroid and testes were examined by histopathological
and immunocytochemical techniques.
Serum hormone levels were estimated by radioimmunoassay.
Through the application of these techniques
it can be concluded that sodium bromide, at
least in high doses, disturbs the function of the
thyroid and the testes directly, thereby indirectly
affecting the pituitary gland. There are indications
from the results that other endocrine organs, such as
the pancreas and adrenal, are involved.

The study by Drs Hansen and Hiibner from the
BGA in Berlin elucidated the effect of bromide on the
behaviour of mice. Using a comparatively simple
model in mice, behavioural effects were studied in an
objective way. With the help of a computer, it was
possible to cope with the great amount of data that
comes from such an experiment. The threshold effect
was between 400 and 200 mg bromide/kg diet in the
short-term study. Using the plasma levels of bromide
found in the 90-day rat study it could be estimated
that behavioural effects in mice may appear at somewhat
lower levels than the levels related to mental and
neurological disturbances in man.
The paper by Drs Sangster, Blom, Sekhuis, Loeber,
Rauws, Koedam and Krajnc and the late Dr van
Logten indicated a considerable team effort. The
authors come from six departments of the National
Institute of Public Health and from the TNO–

Netherlands Institute for Preventive Care. This was
a follow-up of an earlier study in human volunteers.
In the first study the volunteers were administered an
oral daily dose equal to the FAO/WHO JMPRrecommended
ADI of 1 mg bromide/kg body weight
for 8 weeks. No effects, particularly on the endocrine
system, were observed. In the study reported at this
symposium clinical observations were supplemented
with the use of advanced techniques, especially for
studying the effects on the endocrine system and the
central nervous system. Healthy young male and
female volunteers were administered a higher dose of
bromide than in the first study. The doses in the new
study were 0, 4 and 9 mg bromide/kg body weight.
The higher dose had an effect on thyroid hormones
in female subjects, while no effect was found at
4 mg/kg. It is remarkable that in man, as in the rat,
the thyroid was the most sensitive endocrine organ,
although in man–in contrast to rats an increase in
thyroid function was found.


Salt, Tea and Blood Pressure in Pastoral Nomads from Phala Tibet

Monday, August 2nd, 2010

These are a few quotes, resources I used in my research relating to the Tibetan Pastoral Nomads and their diet.

Title: Anthropological Fieldwork in Tibet Studying Nomadic Pastoralists on the Changtang
By: Melvyn C. Goldstein and Cynthia M. Beall (Case Western Reserve University)


For example, the nomad diet is exclusively animal products and grain, i.e., they consume no vegetables or fruits, yet they show no obvious signs of vitamin or mineral deficiency. And despite the fact that they consume large Quantities of fat and salt from the Tibetan tea (made with butter and salt) they drink throughout the day and from their heavy consumption of meat, cheese and yogurt, they also have low blood pressure–we found no cases of hypertension.

Read the full paper free here:

Another quote, this one is from

The high consumption of salt and animal fat does nottranslate into high blood pressure, at least among Tibetan nomads studied last summer by anthropologist Cynthia M. Beall of Case Western Reserve University. Beall, who is working with Goldstein in Tibet, found no cases of hypertension among more than 120 Phala nomads. The average blood pressure of those measured so far is below reported averages for men and women in the United States. The nomads’ diet consists of meat, dairy products, barley flour and tea flavored with salt and butter; fresh fruits and vegetables are scarce at the 3-mile-high elevation. Beall now plans to measure the amount of salt consumed by nomads. Several factors, including extreme altitude, may help to depress blood pressure, she suggests.

Beall uncovered another surprising finding after takingblood samples from 110 Phala men and women and calculating their hemoglobin concentration–a measure that usually increases at high altitudes. Hemoglobin concentration was greater for Phala nomads than for sea-level populations or for Tibetans living at 12,000 feet above sea level, but residents of Chile’s Andes Mountains have the highest known hemoglobin rates at elevations several thousand feet lower than the Tibetan plateau. A larger sample of Phala nomads will be studied for hemoglobin concentration as well as for other measures of oxygen delivery in the body, says Beall.


Science 1998; 281(14): 898-907. “The (Political) Science of Salt”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010
The (political) science of salt
Gary Taubes. Science. Washington: Aug 14, 1998. Vol. 281, Iss. 5379; pg. 898, 9 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

Taubes discusses the debate over the benefits of salt reduction, which shows how the demands of good science clash with the pressures of public health policy.

Quotes from the full article:

The last 5 years have also seen two studies published-the latest this past March in The Lancet-suggesting that low-salt diets can increase mortality. Both studies were done by Michael Alderman, a hypertension specialist at New York City’s Albert Einstein College of Medicine and president of the American Society of Hypertension. Epidemiologists-and Alderman himself-caution against putting too much stock in the studies. “They are yet more association studies,” says Swales. “Any insult you make of Intersalt you can make of those as well.” But Alderman also notes that only a handful of such studies comparing salt intake to mortality have ever been done, and none have come out definitively negative. “People just rely upon statements that [salt reduction] can’t really do any harm,” says Swales. “It may or may not be true. Individual harmful effects can be as small as beneficial effects, and you can’t detect those in clinical trials either.”

After publication of his second study, Alderman recruited past and present presidents of hypertension societies and the American Heart Association and wrote to Lenfant at the NHLBI “urging prompt appointment of an independent panel of qualified medical and public health scientists to review existing recommendations [on salt consumption] in light of all available data.” In April Lenfant told Science that he had agreed to proceed with the review. If such a panel should convene, Hennekens has one observation worth keeping in mind: “The problem with this field is that people have chosen sides,” he says. “What we ought to do is let the science drive the system rather than the opinions.”



Am J Clin Nutr. 1972 Feb;25(2):231-44. “Salt and hypertension”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-

Am J Clin Nutr. 1972 Feb;25(2):231-44.

Salt and hypertension.

Dahl LK.

PMID: 5009786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article

Full Text Sources:

Acta Cardiol. 1987;42(3):187-206. “Does sodium play an adverse role in hypertension?”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

Acta Cardiol. 1987;42(3):187-206.

Does sodium play an adverse role in hypertension?

Singh RB, Singh NK, Mody R, Cameron EA.

Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Moradabad.


It is clear that salt is known to be a health hazard from the ancient times. Sodium intake, which was minimal during evolution, increased significantly with the civilization. The rise in prevalence of hypertension in populations with increased consumption of salt suggested a casual relationship. However, several of these studies showed conflicting results.

Many investigators agree that salt-sensitive persons often have a family history of hypertension. Such individuals possess a sodium transport inhibitor in the arterial smooth muscle cells, which affects their sodium handling (as compared to other persons).

However, many of the putative defects related to sodium can be dissociated from blood pressure and sodium consumption status. It is possible that calcium defects of deficiency of potassium and magnesium follow hypertension and sodium status. For example, the pressure response to sodium chloride may be dissociated from sodium, which may be secondary to adverse effects of chloride on calcium homeostasis. Clinical studies also indicate that the role of sodium is controversial in hypertension.

Sodium restriction can benefit salt-sensitive persons and might not otherwise. However, most authorities believe that moderation of salt intake to a relevant extent is justifiable.


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J Natl Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;82(12):837-40. “Hypertension induction in Dahl rats”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

J Natl Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;82(12):837-40.

Hypertension induction in Dahl rats.

Flowers SW, Jamal IA, Bogden J, Thanki K, Ballester H.

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Maplewood.


There is experimental and epidemiologic evidence that some minerals and trace elements play a role in hypertension. We designed an experiment in which salt and water sources were manipulated to examine the possible impact of this relationship. A strain of rats (Dahl rats) known to become hypertensive with sodium chloride ingestion was used to study the effect of salt source and water source on the induction of hypertension.

The group on tap water and table salt had blood pressures (184 mmHg +/- 19) significantly higher than every other group in the experiment. The experimental animals receiving tap water plus table salt had the highest blood pressure levels, although they consumed the lowest quantity of sodium.

Analysis of the tap water samples showed “soft water” by analysis of calcium and magnesium concentration. This could adversely affect blood pressure.

The relatively high magnesium concentration in sun evaporated sea salt may play a protective role in hypertension induction. The zinc and copper present in tap water may play an exacerbating role.


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