Archive for the ‘Zinc’ Category

Study: The impact of common micronutrient deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: the evidence from human studies.

Thursday, September 22nd, 2011

-:: This Abstract is posted here for posterity and archival purposes only ::-

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;24(1):117-32.
The impact of common micronutrient deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: the evidence from human studies.
Hess SY.

Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. syhess@ucdavis.edu
Abstract

Deficiencies of micronutrients are highly prevalent in low-income countries. Inadequate intake of iodine impairs thyroid function and results in a spectrum of disorders. Other common deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, selenium, vitamin A, and possibly zinc may interact with iodine nutrition and thyroid function. Randomised controlled intervention trials in iodine- and iron-deficient populations have shown that providing iron along with iodine results in greater improvements in thyroid function and volume than providing iodine alone. Vitamin A supplementation given alone or in combination with iodised salt can have a beneficial impact on thyroid function and thyroid size. Despite numerous studies of the effect of selenium on iodine and thyroid metabolism in animals, most published randomised controlled intervention trials in human populations failed to confirm an impact of selenium supplementation on thyroid metabolism. Little evidence is available on interactions between iodine and zinc metabolism.

Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID:
20172476
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172476

Study: The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: biochemistry and relevance to public health.

Friday, July 1st, 2011

-:: This Abstract is posted here for posterity and archival purposes only ::-

Thyroid. 2002 Oct;12(10):867-78.

The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: biochemistry and relevance to public health.

Zimmermann MB, Köhrle J.

Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland. Michael.zimmermann@ilw.agrt.ethz.ch
Abstract

Several minerals and trace elements are essential for normal thyroid hormone metabolism, e.g., iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc. Coexisting deficiencies of these elements can impair thyroid function.

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Iron deficiency impairs thyroid hormone synthesis by reducing activity of heme-dependent thyroid peroxidase. Iron-deficiency anemia blunts and iron supplementation improves the efficacy of iodine supplementation.

Combined selenium and iodine deficiency leads to myxedematous cretinism. The normal thyroid gland retains high selenium concentrations even under conditions of inadequate selenium supply and expresses many of the known selenocysteine-containing proteins. Among these selenoproteins are the glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase, and thioredoxine reductase families of enzymes.

Adequate selenium nutrition supports efficient thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism and protects the thyroid gland from damage by excessive iodide exposure.

In regions of combined severe iodine and selenium deficiency, normalization of iodine supply is mandatory before initiation of selenium supplementation in order to prevent hypothyroidism.

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About Zinc

Tuesday, May 31st, 2011

Zinc aids the immune system and the health of nails and hair. It stimulates hair and nail growth and aids in preventing hair loss. It also may help treat and prevent dandruff. Zinc is an antioxidant nutrient; necessary for protein synthesis; wound healing; vital for the development of the reproductive organs, prostate functions and male hormone activity; it governs the contractility of muscles; important for blood stability; maintains the body’s alkaline balance; helps in normal tissue function; aids in the digestion and metabolism of phosphorus.

Zinc is an essential trace mineral. The human body has between 1.5 – 2.5 g Zn, making it nearly as abundant as iron.

It is highly concentrated in specialized areas of the brain, pancreas and adrenal gland, but is present in all cells, particularly in the nucleus. Zinc has structural, catalytic (enzymatic) and regulatory roles. About 1% of the human genome codes for zinc finger proteins, where zinc provides a structural role for regulatory functions. Over 60 enzymes require zinc for activity, including the RNA polymerases. Zinc is actively taken up by synaptic vesicles, supporting a role in neuronal activity and memory.

Zinc metabolism is altered during disease and physical stress through hormones, cytokines and toxins, presumably as part of a host defense response.

Deficiencies:

An early sign of zinc deficiency in animals is decreased food intake. It is a type II deficiency since a reduction in growth occurs without an apparent reduction in tissue zinc. Reduced immune function, involving B cell and T cell depletion and/or reduced activity, and skin lesions associated with secondary infections are common findings. Chronic zinc deficiency in humans results in reduced growth (dwarfism) and sexual development which are reversible by raising zinc intake. Signs of zinc deficiency may reflect its involvement in cell proliferation and differentiation. Growth, behavioral abnormalities and cognition may respond to zinc supplementation in some populations. Many clinical findings that relate to depressed growth or immunity may have marginal zinc deficiency as a secondary cause. May result in delayed sexual maturity, prolonged healing wounds, white spots on finger nails, retarded growth, stretch marks, fatigue, decreased alertness, susceptibility to infections.

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Trace elements content and hormonal profiles in women with androgenetic alopecia

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2010 Dec 15.
Trace elements content and hormonal profiles in women with androgenetic alopecia.
Skalnaya MG, Tkachev VP.

Russian Society of Trace Elements in Medicine, Zemlyanoy Val str., 46, Moscow 105064, Russia; ANO “Centre for Biotic Medicine”, Zemlyanoy Val str., 46, Moscow 105064, Russia.

It is well-known that some trace element imbalances play a significant role in the pathomechanism of many forms of alopecia. Androgenetic alopecia, however, is a specific local sensitivity of hair follicle receptors to androgens.

In a clinical and laboratory study, 153 women with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and 32 control women were examined. In AGA patients telogen hair and vellus hair (miniaturization, D<30μm) significantly differed in frontal and parietal hair comparison with occipital area (20±0.9% vs. 12±0.5% and 33±0.9% vs. 12±0.6% respectively).

In the AGA group levels of androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone were higher than in the control group. Hair elemental content, analyzed by ICP-MS, demonstrated a lowered Cu and Zn content in the frontal area in comparison to the occipital area. It is important to note, that the AGA patients with elevated levels of androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone presented an increased Cu content and decreased Mn, Se, Zn contents in the occipital area of scalp. The occipital level of Cu positively correlated with the concentration of free testosterone in the serum.

A negative correlation between the Zn content in the occipital area and the dehydroepiandrosterone level in the blood was found.

Unfortunately, a routine treatment course of AGA patients, including topical inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase and minoxidil, had no effect on the Cu hair content in occipital and frontal areas.

However, there were positive changes in the morphological structure and other trace element contents. These data led us to hypothesize a key role of Cu metabolism disturbances in the AGA onset, development of AGA, and potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of AGA.

J Natl Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;82(12):837-40. “Hypertension induction in Dahl rats”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

J Natl Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;82(12):837-40.

Hypertension induction in Dahl rats.

Flowers SW, Jamal IA, Bogden J, Thanki K, Ballester H.

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Maplewood.

Abstract

There is experimental and epidemiologic evidence that some minerals and trace elements play a role in hypertension. We designed an experiment in which salt and water sources were manipulated to examine the possible impact of this relationship. A strain of rats (Dahl rats) known to become hypertensive with sodium chloride ingestion was used to study the effect of salt source and water source on the induction of hypertension.

The group on tap water and table salt had blood pressures (184 mmHg +/- 19) significantly higher than every other group in the experiment. The experimental animals receiving tap water plus table salt had the highest blood pressure levels, although they consumed the lowest quantity of sodium.

Analysis of the tap water samples showed “soft water” by analysis of calcium and magnesium concentration. This could adversely affect blood pressure.

The relatively high magnesium concentration in sun evaporated sea salt may play a protective role in hypertension induction. The zinc and copper present in tap water may play an exacerbating role.

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