Archive for the ‘Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome’ Category

Free-IGF-1 lowers SHBG | Acne, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Hyperinsulinemia and Diet

Sunday, November 21st, 2010

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Arch Dermatol. 2002 Dec;138(12):1584-90.
Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization.

Cordain L, Lindeberg S, Hurtado M, Hill K, Eaton SB, Brand-Miller J.
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. cordain@cahs.colostate.edu
Comment in:
* Arch Dermatol. 2002 Dec;138(12):1591-2.
* Arch Dermatol. 2003 Jul;139(7):941; author reply 942-3.
* Arch Dermatol. 2003 Jul;139(7):941-2; author reply 942-3.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In westernized societies, acne vulgaris is a nearly universal skin disease afflicting 79% to 95% of the adolescent population. In men and women older than 25 years, 40% to 54% have some degree of facial acne, and clinical facial acne persists into middle age in 12% of women and 3% of men. Epidemiological evidence suggests that acne incidence rates are considerably lower in nonwesternized societies. Herein we report the prevalence of acne in 2 nonwesternized populations: the Kitavan Islanders of Papua New Guinea and the Aché hunter-gatherers of Paraguay. Additionally, we analyze how elements in nonwesternized environments may influence the development of acne.

OBSERVATIONS: Of 1200 Kitavan subjects examined (including 300 aged 15-25 years), no case of acne (grade 1 with multiple comedones or grades 2-4) was observed. Of 115 Aché subjects examined (including 15 aged 15-25 years) over 843 days, no case of active acne (grades 1-4) was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: The astonishing difference in acne incidence rates between nonwesternized and fully modernized societies cannot be solely attributed to genetic differences among populations but likely results from differing environmental factors. Identification of these factors may be useful in the treatment of acne in Western populations.

PMID: 12472346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Insulin Resistance Article – Archived

Thursday, August 19th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-
Thanks to medscape.com for this invaluable article

Insulin Resistance

Background

Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. Insulin resistance has also been arbitrarily defined as the requirement of 200 or more units of insulin per day to attain glycemic control and to prevent ketosis.

The syndromes of insulin resistance actually make up a broad clinical spectrum, which includes obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, as well as an extreme insulin-resistant state. Many of these disorders are associated with various endocrine, metabolic, and genetic conditions. These syndromes may also be associated with immunological diseases and may exhibit distinct phenotypic characteristics.

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The metabolic syndrome —a state of insulin-resistance that is also known as either syndrome X or the dysmetabolic syndrome—has drawn the greatest attention because of its public health importance.

In an effort to clinically identify patients with insulin resistance, various organizations have developed diagnostic criteria. The most commonly used criteria in the United States are those of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III).

  • NCEP/ATP III criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome include the following (diagnosis is made when 3 or more are present):
    • Waist circumference of more than 102 cm in men or more than 88 cm in women
    • Fasting triglyceride level of 150 mg/dL or higher
    • Blood pressure level of 130/85 mm Hg or higher
    • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
    • Fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher (which has been changed to 100 mg/dL to reflect revised criteria for impaired fasting glucose [IFG])

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J Cardiovasc Risk. 2003 Jun;10(3):227-31. “Hair loss, insulin resistance, and heredity in middle-aged women…”

Tuesday, August 17th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-

J Cardiovasc Risk. 2003 Jun;10(3):227-31.

Hair loss, insulin resistance, and heredity in middle-aged women. A population-based study.

Matilainen V, Laakso M, Hirsso P, Koskela P, Rajala U, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S.

Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu and Unit of General Practice, Central University Hospital of Oulu, Finland.

Abstract

CONTEXT: The association of androgenic alopecia (AGA) with insulin resistance, coronary artery disease and hypercholesterolemia has been previously reported in men, but no such association has been reported in women with female androgenic alopecia (AGA). Female AGA has usually been linked with hyper-androgenism and hirsutism and, most recently, also with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), even though epidemiological documentation of the latter association is scanty. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is quite common among Caucasian women, and its association with insulin resistance is well documented.

OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise estimation of the prevalence on female AGA and to describe its possible connections with insulin resistance linked parameters and with paternal and maternal family history of alopecia. A cross-sectional population based cohort survey was carried out in the City of Oulu, Finland in 1998.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: As a part of a population based cohort study the hair status of 324 women aged 63 years was assessed by a modification of Ludwig’s scale. The background data consisting of anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index, waist, hip and neck circumferences), smoking status, chronic diseases and their medication as well as the family history of AGA were collected by questionnaires and interviews made by study nurses and in clinical examination. Blood samples for laboratory tests were taken on the same occasion.

RESULTS: The prevalence of extensive loss of hair (at least grade II or III on Ludwig’s scale) was quite high (31.2%). The insulin resistance associated parameters, such as waist and neck circumferences, abdominal obesity measured by waist-to-hip ratio, mean insulin concentration (11.3 mU/l versus 9.95 mU/l, p=0.02) or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (1.80 versus 1.58, p=0.01), were significantly higher in women with extensive hair loss compared to those with normal hair or only minimal hair loss (grade I on Ludwig’s scale). The women belonging to the highest quintiles of neck or waist circumferences had significantly increased risk for extensive hair loss compared to those with normal hair or minimal hair loss, the unadjusted ORs being 2.25 (95% CI, 1.26-4.03) and 1.75 (95% CI, 1.00-3.07), respectively. Similarly in women with hyperinsulinemia (fs-insulin >10 mU/l), microalbuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio exceeding the highest microalbuminuria decile (>2.5 mg/mmol) and paternal history of AGA the ORs for alopecia were increased being 1.65 (95% CI, 1.02-2.67), 2.39 (95% CI, 1.21-4.73) and 2.08 (95% CI, 1.26-3.44). All of these ORs, except those for highest quintiles of waist and neck circumferences remained significant in multiple adjusted models.

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