Archive for the ‘Vitamin B6 – Pyridoxine’ Category

Methylation and Hair Loss

Monday, May 9th, 2011

Notes:

  • It is good to supplement Betaine HCl, or Betaine anhydrous, (with a meal) because stomach acid will convert it into trimethylglycine (TMG). *
  • If you’re not taking real (non-synthetic) forms of B-vitamins, you might be more susceptible to androgenic alopecia (hair loss).
  • The most important B vitamins to keep strong methylation going are: Choline, Folate (not folic acid), B6 (natural form is better) and B12.
  • Both Folate and vitamin B12 stimulate methylation.
  • The occipital hair follicles in male-patterned hair loss are properly methylated, however the vulnerable MPB hair follicles are not.
  • For most people, extra methylation will help.

What is Methylation?

Methylation contributing to epigenetic inheritance can occur through either DNA methylation or protein methylation.

DNA methylation in vertebrates typically occurs at CpG sites (cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites, that is, where a cytosine is directly followed by a guanine in the DNA sequence). This methylation results in the conversion of the cytosine to 5-methylcytosine. The formation of Me-CpG is catalyzed by the enzyme DNA methyltransferase. Human DNA has about 80%-90% of CpG sites methylated, but there are certain areas, known as CpG islands, that are GC-rich (made up of about 65% CG residues), wherein none are methylated. These are associated with the promoters of 56% of mammalian genes, including all ubiquitously expressed genes. One to two percent of the human genome are CpG clusters, and there is an inverse relationship between CpG methylation and transcriptional activity.

Protein methylation typically takes place on arginine or lysine amino acid residues in the protein sequence.[1] Arginine can be methylated once (monomethylated arginine) or twice, with either both methyl groups on one terminal nitrogen (asymmetric dimethylated arginine) or one on both nitrogens (symmetric dimethylated arginine) by peptidylarginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Lysine can be methylated once, twice or three times by lysine methyltransferases. Protein methylation has been most-studied in the histones. The transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl methionine to histones is catalyzed by enzymes known as histone methyltransferases. Histones that are methylated on certain residues can act epigenetically to repress or activate gene expression.[2][3] Protein methylation is one type of post-translational modification.

The Methyl group is so important that when a cell is broken down the methyl is saved inside a toxic amino acid called Homocysteine.

Homocysteine is toxic to keep bacteria and parasites away from it during the short trip to the liver where it is unpacked and the methyl gets used up by the various steps of methylation which supply compounds ranging from Tryptophan to SAMe used for DNA methylation and neurotransmitters, hormones and Serotonin.

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