Archive for the ‘Hypertension’ Category

140+ Reasons Why Sugar Is Ruining Your Health

Sunday, November 28th, 2010

The following list was written by Nancy Appleton, Ph.D. (visit her very informative website www.nancyappleton.com), the author of the book Lick The Sugar Habit.

In addition to throwing off the body’s homeostasis, excess sugar may result in a number of other significant consequences. The following is a listing of some of sugar’s metabolic consequences from a variety of medical journals and other scientific publications.

141 Reasons Sugar Ruins Your Health

(Just Kidding, it’s 143)

By Nancy Appleton PhD & G.N. Jacobs

Excerpted from Suicide by Sugar

Used with permission

1. Sugar can suppress your immune system.

2. Sugar upsets the mineral relationships in the body.

3. Sugar can cause juvenile delinquency in children.

4. Sugar eaten during pregnancy and lactation can influence muscle force production in offspring, which can affect an individual’s ability to exercise.

5. Sugar in soda, when consumed by children, results in the children drinking less milk.

6. Sugar can elevate glucose and insulin responses and return them to fasting levels slower in oral contraceptive users.

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Insulin Resistance Article – Archived

Thursday, August 19th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-
Thanks to medscape.com for this invaluable article

Insulin Resistance

Background

Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. Insulin resistance has also been arbitrarily defined as the requirement of 200 or more units of insulin per day to attain glycemic control and to prevent ketosis.

The syndromes of insulin resistance actually make up a broad clinical spectrum, which includes obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, as well as an extreme insulin-resistant state. Many of these disorders are associated with various endocrine, metabolic, and genetic conditions. These syndromes may also be associated with immunological diseases and may exhibit distinct phenotypic characteristics.

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The metabolic syndrome —a state of insulin-resistance that is also known as either syndrome X or the dysmetabolic syndrome—has drawn the greatest attention because of its public health importance.

In an effort to clinically identify patients with insulin resistance, various organizations have developed diagnostic criteria. The most commonly used criteria in the United States are those of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III).

  • NCEP/ATP III criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome include the following (diagnosis is made when 3 or more are present):
    • Waist circumference of more than 102 cm in men or more than 88 cm in women
    • Fasting triglyceride level of 150 mg/dL or higher
    • Blood pressure level of 130/85 mm Hg or higher
    • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
    • Fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher (which has been changed to 100 mg/dL to reflect revised criteria for impaired fasting glucose [IFG])

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Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Oct;71(4):494-9. “Androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance in young men”

Wednesday, August 18th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Oct;71(4):494-9.

Androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance in young men.

González-González JG, Mancillas-Adame LG, Fernández-Reyes M, Gómez-Flores M, Lavalle-González FJ, Ocampo-Candiani J, Villarreal-Pérez JZ.

Servicio de Endocrinologia, Dr Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez University Hospital, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Ave. Madero y Gonzalitos S/N, Monterrey, Mexico. jgonzalezg@fm.uanl.mx

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have associated androgenetic alopecia (AGA) with severe young-age coronary artery disease and hypertension, and linked it to insulin resistance. We carried out a case-control study in age- and weight-matched young males to study the link between AGA and insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index or metabolic syndrome clinical manifestations.

METHODS: Eighty young males, 18-35 years old, with AGA > or = stage III in the Hamilton-Norwood classification, and 80 weight- and age-matched controls were included. Alopecia, glucose, serum insulin, HOMA-IR index, lipid profile and androgen levels, as well as metabolic syndrome criteria, were evaluated.

RESULTS: The HOMA-IR index was significantly higher in cases than controls. Nonobese cases had a higher mean diastolic blood pressure and a more frequent family history of AGA than nonobese controls. A borderline difference in the HOMA-IR index was found in obese AGA cases vs. obese controls [P = 0.055, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36-4.20 vs. 1.75-2.73]. Free testosterone values were significantly higher in controls than cases, regardless of body mass index (BMI). A statistically significant additive effect for obesity plus alopecia was found, with significant trends for insulin, the HOMA-IR index, lipids and free testosterone when BMI and alopecia status were used to classify the participants.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the recommendation for assessing insulin resistance and cardiovascular-related features and disorders in all young males with stage III or higher AGA, according to the Hamilton-Norwood classification.

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Cent Eur J Public Health. 2006 Jun;14(2):78-81. “Association of insulin resistance linked diseases and hair loss in elderly men. Finnish population-based study”

Tuesday, August 17th, 2010

Note: The below is published here for archival purposes.

Cent Eur J Public Health. 2006 Jun;14(2):78-81.

Association of insulin resistance linked diseases and hair loss in elderly men. Finnish population-based study.

Hirsso P, Laakso M, Matilainen V, Hiltunen L, Rajala U, Jokelainen J, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S.

University of Oulu, Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, Finland. paivi.hirsso@oulu.fi

Abstract

Previous investigations have shown an association of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) with insulin resistance related disorders such as ischemic heart disease. An association between AGA and anthropometric abnormalities linked with insulin resistance and heredity in women aged 63 years has also been shown.

We therefore compared 63-year-old men with AGA and ones with normal hair status for insulin resistance linked parameters. A population of 245 men aged 63 years, who were participants in a population-based cross-sectional study in the City of Oulu, underwent a medical check-up including assessment of hair status on the Hamilton-Norwood scale and determination of anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose and serum lipids.

Fifty eight per cent of the men reported extensive hair loss (grade III-VII). Hypertension and the use of antihypertensive drugs were common among men with AGA (61% vs. 45% and 50% vs. 26%, respectively). The rates of diabetes and hyperinsulinemia (21% vs. 12% and 61% vs. 49%) were higher among men with AGA compared to those with normal hair status but no difference was seen in other factors.

Our findings show that AGA is common among Finnish men aged 63 years but that it is also associated with insulin linked disturbances, such as hypertension and diabetes. Such men developing AGA might benefit from attention in medical check-up.

PMID: 16830609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Salt, Tea and Blood Pressure in Pastoral Nomads from Phala Tibet

Monday, August 2nd, 2010

These are a few quotes, resources I used in my research relating to the Tibetan Pastoral Nomads and their diet.

Title: Anthropological Fieldwork in Tibet Studying Nomadic Pastoralists on the Changtang
By: Melvyn C. Goldstein and Cynthia M. Beall (Case Western Reserve University)

Quote:

For example, the nomad diet is exclusively animal products and grain, i.e., they consume no vegetables or fruits, yet they show no obvious signs of vitamin or mineral deficiency. And despite the fact that they consume large Quantities of fat and salt from the Tibetan tea (made with butter and salt) they drink throughout the day and from their heavy consumption of meat, cheese and yogurt, they also have low blood pressure–we found no cases of hypertension.

Read the full paper free here: http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1148&context=himalaya

Another quote, this one is from findarticles.com

The high consumption of salt and animal fat does nottranslate into high blood pressure, at least among Tibetan nomads studied last summer by anthropologist Cynthia M. Beall of Case Western Reserve University. Beall, who is working with Goldstein in Tibet, found no cases of hypertension among more than 120 Phala nomads. The average blood pressure of those measured so far is below reported averages for men and women in the United States. The nomads’ diet consists of meat, dairy products, barley flour and tea flavored with salt and butter; fresh fruits and vegetables are scarce at the 3-mile-high elevation. Beall now plans to measure the amount of salt consumed by nomads. Several factors, including extreme altitude, may help to depress blood pressure, she suggests.

Beall uncovered another surprising finding after takingblood samples from 110 Phala men and women and calculating their hemoglobin concentration–a measure that usually increases at high altitudes. Hemoglobin concentration was greater for Phala nomads than for sea-level populations or for Tibetans living at 12,000 feet above sea level, but residents of Chile’s Andes Mountains have the highest known hemoglobin rates at elevations several thousand feet lower than the Tibetan plateau. A larger sample of Phala nomads will be studied for hemoglobin concentration as well as for other measures of oxygen delivery in the body, says Beall.

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Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Feb;65(2 Suppl):708S-711S. “Dietary sodium and blood pressure: interactions with other nutrients”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-

Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Feb;65(2 Suppl):708S-711S.

Dietary sodium and blood pressure: interactions with other nutrients.

Kotchen TA, Kotchen JM.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226, USA.

Abstract

This paper reviews the evidence that salt sensitivity of blood pressure is related both to the anion ingested with sodium as well as to other components of the diet.

In several experimental models of salt-sensitive hypertension and in humans, blood pressure is not increased by a high sodium intake provided with anions other than chloride. Salt-induced increase of blood pressure depends on the concomitant ingestion of both sodium and chloride.

Both epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggest that sodium chloride-induced increases of blood pressure are augmented by diets deficient in potassium or calcium. In experimental animals, a high intake of simple carbohydrates also augments sodium chloride sensitivity of blood pressure.

These observations indicate that the effect of dietary sodium on blood pressure is modulated by other components of the diet.

PMID: 9022570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Acta Cardiol. 1987;42(3):187-206. “Does sodium play an adverse role in hypertension?”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

Acta Cardiol. 1987;42(3):187-206.

Does sodium play an adverse role in hypertension?

Singh RB, Singh NK, Mody R, Cameron EA.

Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Moradabad.

Abstract

It is clear that salt is known to be a health hazard from the ancient times. Sodium intake, which was minimal during evolution, increased significantly with the civilization. The rise in prevalence of hypertension in populations with increased consumption of salt suggested a casual relationship. However, several of these studies showed conflicting results.

Many investigators agree that salt-sensitive persons often have a family history of hypertension. Such individuals possess a sodium transport inhibitor in the arterial smooth muscle cells, which affects their sodium handling (as compared to other persons).

However, many of the putative defects related to sodium can be dissociated from blood pressure and sodium consumption status. It is possible that calcium defects of deficiency of potassium and magnesium follow hypertension and sodium status. For example, the pressure response to sodium chloride may be dissociated from sodium, which may be secondary to adverse effects of chloride on calcium homeostasis. Clinical studies also indicate that the role of sodium is controversial in hypertension.

Sodium restriction can benefit salt-sensitive persons and might not otherwise. However, most authorities believe that moderation of salt intake to a relevant extent is justifiable.

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J Natl Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;82(12):837-40. “Hypertension induction in Dahl rats”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

J Natl Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;82(12):837-40.

Hypertension induction in Dahl rats.

Flowers SW, Jamal IA, Bogden J, Thanki K, Ballester H.

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Maplewood.

Abstract

There is experimental and epidemiologic evidence that some minerals and trace elements play a role in hypertension. We designed an experiment in which salt and water sources were manipulated to examine the possible impact of this relationship. A strain of rats (Dahl rats) known to become hypertensive with sodium chloride ingestion was used to study the effect of salt source and water source on the induction of hypertension.

The group on tap water and table salt had blood pressures (184 mmHg +/- 19) significantly higher than every other group in the experiment. The experimental animals receiving tap water plus table salt had the highest blood pressure levels, although they consumed the lowest quantity of sodium.

Analysis of the tap water samples showed “soft water” by analysis of calcium and magnesium concentration. This could adversely affect blood pressure.

The relatively high magnesium concentration in sun evaporated sea salt may play a protective role in hypertension induction. The zinc and copper present in tap water may play an exacerbating role.

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Clin Sci (Lond). 2009 Jun 2;117(1):1-11. “Salt and high blood pressure”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

Clin Sci (Lond). 2009 Jun 2;117(1):1-11.

Salt and high blood pressure.

Mohan S, Campbell NR.

Departments of Medicine and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract

HBP (high blood pressure) is the leading risk of death in the world. Unfortunately around the world, blood pressure levels are predicted to become even higher, especially in developing countries. High dietary salt is an important contributor to increased blood pressure. The present review evaluates the association between excess dietary salt intake and the importance of a population-based strategy to lower dietary salt, and also highlights some salt-reduction strategies from selected countries. Evidence from diverse sources spanning animal, epidemiology and human intervention studies demonstrate the association between salt intake and HBP. Furthermore, animal studies indicate that short-term interventions in humans may underestimate the health risks associated with high dietary sodium. Recent intervention studies have found decreases in cardiovascular events following reductions in dietary sodium. Salt intake is high in most countries and, therefore, strategies to lower salt intake could be an effective means to reduce the increasing burden of HBP and the associated cardiovascular disease. Effective collaborative partnerships between governments, the food industry, scientific organizations and healthcare organizations are essential to achieve the WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended population-wide decrease in salt consumption to less than 5 g/day. In the milieu of increasing cardiovascular disease worldwide, particularly in resource-constrained low- and middle-income countries, salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective strategies to combat the epidemic of HBP, associated cardiovascular disease and improve population health.

PMID: 19476440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]






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Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Mar-Apr;52(5):363-82. “Reducing population salt intake worldwide”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Mar-Apr;52(5):363-82.

Reducing population salt intake worldwide: from evidence to implementation.

He FJ, MacGregor GA.

Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. f.he@qmul.ac.uk

Abstract

Raised blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, responsible for 62% of stroke and 49% of coronary heart disease. There is overwhelming evidence that dietary salt is the major cause of raised blood pressure and that a reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure, thereby, reducing blood pressure-related diseases.

Several lines of evidence including ecological, population, and prospective cohort studies, as well as outcome trials, demonstrate that a reduction in salt intake is related to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also suggests that a high salt intake may directly increase the risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, and renal disease; is associated with obesity through soft drink consumption; is related to renal stones and osteoporosis; is linked to the severity of asthma; and is probably a major cause of stomach cancer.

In most developed countries, a reduction in salt intake can be achieved by a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods by the food industry. In other countries where most of the salt consumed comes from salt added during cooking or from sauces, a public health campaign is needed to encourage consumers to use less salt. Several countries have already reduced salt intake. The challenge now is to spread this out to all other countries. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide will result in a major improvement in public health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20226955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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