Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphate, Vitamin D and Hypertention in Dahl Rats – Sources

Clin Exp Hypertens. 1998 Oct;20(7):795-815.

Hypertension development in Dahl S and R rats on high salt-low potassium diet: calcium, magnesium and sympathetic nervous system.

Wu X, Ackermann U, Sonnenberg H.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

Dietary combination of high salt with low potassium (HSLK) exacerbates hypertension development in Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats, and produces a mild degree of hypertension in otherwise salt-resistant (R) rats. Increased blood pressure in both strains is associated with increased urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of blood pressure on body balance of these ions in Dahl rats on HSLK diet. Two groups of S and two groups of R weanlings were all placed on HSLK diet (NaCl=8%, K=0.2%) for eight weeks. One group of each strain was subjected to chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to counteract hypertension development. Urinary norepinephrine was used to determine efficacy of 6-OHDA treatment. Systolic blood pressures of conscious animals were measured daily throughout the study. The last three days on the diet were used to determine total dietary intake and urinary as well as fecal excretion of sodium, calcium and magnesium. At the end of the study, extracellular fluid volume, serum aldosterone and parathyroid hormone were analyzed. Final systolic blood pressures in the 4 groups were as follows: S=235+/-9 mmHg (n=9); R=155+/-3 mmHg (n=8); 6-OHDA S=151+/-6 mm Hg (n=8); 6-OHDA R=117+/-6 mm Hg. Chemical sympathectomy decreased blood pressure in both S and R rats. There was no indication of sodium accumulation in S rats. Associated with reduced parathyroid hormone levels the S strain had significantly less positive balance for calcium than the R strain, primarily due to increased urinary excretion. A less positive balance for magnesium was also observed, due mainly to relatively reduced intestinal absorption of the ion. We conclude that the HSLK diet is associated with inappropriate activation of the sympathetic nervous system and increased arterial pressure in both strains. In addition, since divalent cations may influence blood pressure, we suggest that the observed abnormalities in calcium and magnesium metabolism might independently promote hypertension development in the S strain.

Clin Exp Hypertens. 1995 Aug;17(6):989-1008.

Potassium depletion and salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl rats: effect on calcium, magnesium, and phosphate excretions.

Wu X, Ackermann U, Sonnenberg H.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Abstract

Weanling male inbred Dahl rats (Jr salt-sensitive (S) and salt-resistant (R) strains) were placed on high (4%, HK) and low (0.2%, LK) potassium diets for 4 weeks. Both diets contained 8% sodium chloride, 2.5% calcium, 0.8% magnesium, and 2.0% phosphorous. Balance studies were carried out during the final week on the diets. Mean arterial blood pressure was determined, and dietary intake and urinary output of water, sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate were monitored daily during this period. The data show that blood pressures of S rats were significantly higher than those of R rats on both HK and LK diets; however, reduced dietary potassium was associated with increased blood pressure in both strains. Urinary excretions of calcium and magnesium were higher, and urinary phosphate excretion was lower, in S compared to R rats. Decreased potassium intake was associated with increased excretion of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in both strains. The changes in calcium and magnesium excretion were significantly correlated to blood pressure across strains and diets. We conclude that the effects of a high salt diet on increasing blood pressure can be potentiated by lack of potassium, even in previously salt-resistant rats. Increased blood pressure is associated with increased divalent cation excretion. It is not yet known whether this is a cause-and-effect relationship.

PMID: 7581265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2000 May-Jun;27(5-6):378-83.

Regulation of sodium, calcium and vitamin D metabolism in Dahl rats on a high-salt/low-potassium diet: genetic and neural influences.

Wu X, Vieth R, Milojevic S, Sonnenberg H, Melo LG.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

1. A dietary combination of high salt and low potassium (HSLK) exacerbates hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats and renders previously normotensive Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats hypertensive. In both strains, the severity of hypertension correlates with urinary calcium loss. However, the magnitude of excretory calcium losses is significantly greater in DS rats and is potentiated by chemical sympathectomy in both strains. 2. We hypothesized that a defect in vitamin D metabolism may underlie the observed strain-dependent differences in calcium balance. 3. Arterial blood pressure (ABP), water and mineral balance and serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) were measured in intact and chemically sympathectomized (6-hydroxydopamine; 6-OHDA) DS and DR rats after 8 weeks on a HSLK diet. 4. Chronic ingestion of this diet resulted in marked and moderate levels of hypertension in DS and DR rats, respectively. The hypertension was abated and eliminated by 6-OHDA in the DS and DR strains, respectively. Independent of treatment, DS rats had significantly higher urinary excretion of calcium and reduced intestinal absorption of the ion compared with DR rats. The DS rats had significantly higher serum levels of 1,25(OH)2 D3 and markedly lower serum levels of 25(OH)D3 than DR rats. Chemical sympathectomy tended to increase 1,25(OH)2 D3 and to decrease 25(OH)D3 levels in both strains. 5. These data indicate a genetic difference in vitamin D metabolism between DS and DR rats. The abnormally elevated levels of 1,25(OH)2 D3 in DS rats may be an appropriate compensatory response to excessive excretory calcium loss and reduced target organ sensitivity to the hormone and may, maladaptively, directly contribute to hypertension, by stimulating vascular smooth muscle contractility.

PMID: 10831239 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]






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