Posts Tagged ‘Adrenal’

Adrenal Fatigue

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

Adrenal Fatigue is linked to hair loss.

More details will be added in the future.


Supplements to help with adrenal fatigue:

Gaia Adrenal Health Supplement

Also consider Earthing as it could possibly help:

Earthing: The Most Important Health Discovery Ever?

Gaia Adrenal Health Supplement

Monday, January 31st, 2011

Adrenal fatigue is strongly linked to hair loss.

If you are always tired, or easily irritable or have other adrenal fatigue syndromes consider this supplement.


Adrenal Health with Holy Basil and Rhodiola

Patented liquid Phyto-Caps deliver liquid extract in veggie caps

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Try Extra Strength Adrenal Health with Holy Basil and Rhodiola from Gaia Herbs in their Liquid Phyto-Caps for maximum absorption. These liquid filled capsules are easy to take, and they provide natural adrenal health support with standardized supercritical extract of Holy Basil and standardized Rhodiola extract. This natural supplement contains no animal by-products and no gelatin and has been tested to be free of heavy metal toxicity

Find it here:

Find it on iHerb: and

Swanson vitamins also has this.

Alternatively you could take one or more of the ingredients found in this supplement individually such as:

International Symposium on Residues and Toxicity of Bromide

Saturday, September 4th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-

To learn about the symptoms of Bromide toxicity note the bolded lines below



In the first paper of this symposium Dr Greve
discussed the advantages and disadvantages of methods
for the analysis of bromide. Moreover, data were
given on residues of bromide in food and feedstuffs
and on the daily intake of bromide residues by
humans. The average daily intake in The Netherlands
was estimated in two total-diet studies in the summer
of 1976 and the winter of 1978. The average bromide
content in the total diet was 3.6 and 3.2 mg/kg for the
first and second study, respectively. Based on these
levels and the food intakes, the estimates of daily
bromide intake were 7.8 (range 3 15) and 7.6
(1.8 17.2) rag/person/day. These data showed a good
agreement between summer and winter diets.
The paper further gave an account of residue data
from classified food items and feedstuff samples. In
general, the residues were either low (~ 1 mg/kg food)
or medium (c. 5 mg/kg food), but occasionally high
residues (>~200mg/kg food) were found in certain
leafy vegetables or herbs. The main source of the high
residues was treatment of soils with methyl bromide.
The following paper, by Drs Wegman, Hamaker
and de Heer, was concerned with studies on the
bromide-ion balance of a polder district where there
was large-scale use of methyl bromide for soil fumigation.
The concentration of bromide ion was determined
in precipitation, surface water and ground
water, in which the maximum concentrations were
found to be 0.98, 41 and 17 g/m 3, respectively. The
highest concentrations of bromide in surface water
were found during the main fumigation season in
During a one-year period (September 1979 August
1980) a bromide balance was computed for the polder
district, Delfland, based on the supply and discharge
of bromide from the polder area. The use of methyl
bromide contributed 222 Mg (Mg = 1000 kg) to the
input of bromide ion in the polder district. This
corresponded to 68~o of the total input of bromide
ion (325 Mg). On average over a year about 15~o of
the applied methyl bromide (1500 Mg, calculated as
bromide) was converted to bromide ion. Corrective
measures have since been introduced. The former use
of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sheeting has
been banned and from 1981 a more gas-tight sheeting
has had to be used. This allows for the use of a third
of the earlier dose of methyl bromide.
The paper dealing with ecotoxicological studies on
sodium bromide, presented by Drs Canton and
Wester and Mrs Mathijssen-Spiekman, was an
example of the broad nature of the papers presented
at this symposium. The acute toxicity of bromide for
fresh-water organisms was studied in four species: an
alga, a crustacean species (Daphnia magna) and two
species of fish, an Oryzias and a Poecilia. In other
studies an effect on reproduction was found both in

Daphnia and in the fish Poecilia, the guppy. Histopathological
examination in the long-term studies
revealed no effect in the Oryzias. In the Poecilia
several histological changes were found, notably
concentralion-related thyroid hyperplasia, myopathy
and regressive changes in the female reproductive
The thyroid changes are of special interest in
view of the subsequently discussed findings in the rat.
The NOEC x (LC(EC)25/LC(EC)50) value, suggested
earlier as an index for water quality based on
ecotoxicity, was estimated to be 1 mg bromide/litre
using as the criterion reproduction in the test with
Poecilia. Concentrations found in surface water frequently
exceed this value and it is claimed that levels
can be so high that acute effects might be expected.
As a general toxicologist, I have the feeling that the
fact that the ecotoxicological studies were performed
in closed vessels should be taken into consideration
when interpreting the environmental importance of
the studies.
Dr Rauws entered the field of mammalian and
human toxicology. His overview of the pharmacokinetics
of the bromide ion included a general
discussion of the use and usefulness of pharmacokinetic
studies in toxicology. The similarity of
bromide to chloride gives rise to an important pharmacokinetic
interaction. Both ions compete for reabsorption
in the kidney tubules. Because of this
competition, high chloride reabsorption will lead to
higher bromide excretion and vice versa. This has
been experimentally confirmed. The biological halflife
of bromide can be decreased by administration of
chloride. Conversely, the normal half-life of bromide,
in man 12 days and in the rat 3 days, may be
increased by a salt-restricted diet. In experiments by
Rauws and the late van Logten the bromide half-life
in the rat could thus be prolonged to 25 days by
ingestion of a salt-free diet with tap water
. It was
found that the plasma bromide level could be
influenced considerably by a low-chloride diet.
Two further findings should be mentioned. First
the effect of chloride depletion can be mirrored in
that the same plasma-bromide level can be obtained
with much less bromide in the diet; secondly the
foetus appears to be more accessible to bromide than
the mother and elimination from the foetus is retarded.
The next three papers discussed, in detail, the toxic
effects of bromide ion in the rat. The first paper by
Drs van Leeuwen and den Tonkelaar and the late Dr
van Logten dealt primarily with effects on the endocrine
system and reproduction. This contribution
provided a comprehensive discussion of the effect of
bromide ion in the rat. In a 90-day oral study the dose
levels used were 0, 75, 300, 1200, 4800 and
19,200 mg/kg in the diet and a complex of changes in
422 Summary and the endocrine system was observed. The effect on the
thyroid, an activation, was the most prominent. In
the highest dose groups, different effects were noted;
e.g. atrophy of the testes and an effect on the prostate
occurred in male rats, while in females a reduced
number of corpora lutea were found. A threegeneration
reproduction study carried out with the
same dose levels revealed a decrease in fertility in the
two highest dose groups. This effect was, however,
reversible on withdrawal of the bromide.

On the basis of the effect on the thyroid in the
90-day study (an increase of relative organ weight
down to 1200 mg/kg diet), a no-effect level of 300 mg
sodium bromide/kg was established. This corresponded
to 240 mg bromide ion/kg diet, equivalent to
12 mg/kg body weight. By application of a safety
factor of 100, a tentative ADI of 0.12mg/kg is
suggested. This figure will be considered again in
connection with the study on human volunteers.
In the 90-day rat study reported here and in
previous studies there were indications of a more
general effect on the endocrine system. Further studies
in the rat were performed to elucidate the effect of
bromide on the thyroid, including studies on a
chloride-depleted diet. The effect on thyroid function
was studied using several parameters, including
thyroxine concentration in the serum and uptake of
radiolabelled iodine by the thyroid. The effect was
complex and will not be discussed further in this

A study was undertaken by Drs Loeber, Franken
and van Leeuwen to elucidate the effect of sodium
bromide in the rat. Sophisticated techniques of histopathology
and clinical chemistry were employed,
including immunocytochemistry (Franken) and
radioimmunoassay (Loeber). Male rats were fed 0,
20, 75, 300, 1200 or 19,200mg/kg diet for 4 or 12
weeks. At the end of the experiments the pituitary
gland, thyroid and testes were examined by histopathological
and immunocytochemical techniques.
Serum hormone levels were estimated by radioimmunoassay.
Through the application of these techniques
it can be concluded that sodium bromide, at
least in high doses, disturbs the function of the
thyroid and the testes directly, thereby indirectly
affecting the pituitary gland. There are indications
from the results that other endocrine organs, such as
the pancreas and adrenal, are involved.

The study by Drs Hansen and Hiibner from the
BGA in Berlin elucidated the effect of bromide on the
behaviour of mice. Using a comparatively simple
model in mice, behavioural effects were studied in an
objective way. With the help of a computer, it was
possible to cope with the great amount of data that
comes from such an experiment. The threshold effect
was between 400 and 200 mg bromide/kg diet in the
short-term study. Using the plasma levels of bromide
found in the 90-day rat study it could be estimated
that behavioural effects in mice may appear at somewhat
lower levels than the levels related to mental and
neurological disturbances in man.
The paper by Drs Sangster, Blom, Sekhuis, Loeber,
Rauws, Koedam and Krajnc and the late Dr van
Logten indicated a considerable team effort. The
authors come from six departments of the National
Institute of Public Health and from the TNO–

Netherlands Institute for Preventive Care. This was
a follow-up of an earlier study in human volunteers.
In the first study the volunteers were administered an
oral daily dose equal to the FAO/WHO JMPRrecommended
ADI of 1 mg bromide/kg body weight
for 8 weeks. No effects, particularly on the endocrine
system, were observed. In the study reported at this
symposium clinical observations were supplemented
with the use of advanced techniques, especially for
studying the effects on the endocrine system and the
central nervous system. Healthy young male and
female volunteers were administered a higher dose of
bromide than in the first study. The doses in the new
study were 0, 4 and 9 mg bromide/kg body weight.
The higher dose had an effect on thyroid hormones
in female subjects, while no effect was found at
4 mg/kg. It is remarkable that in man, as in the rat,
the thyroid was the most sensitive endocrine organ,
although in man–in contrast to rats an increase in
thyroid function was found.


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