Posts Tagged ‘Coronary Artery Disease’

Is Salt Good of Bad?

Wednesday, June 8th, 2011

Doctors and dietitians, along with the USDA dietary guidelines, and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend eating a diet low in sodium to prevent hypertension, risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke; most allopathic doctors place their patients on low-salt diets, they have since the 1970′s.

Not all salts are created equal. Many in the “Raw Food” movement (which has some great ideas to offer) shun salt away and even call it a poison. They fail to differentiate the different types of salts, table salt might be thought of as poison (or unhealthy) while other salts that are healthier do exist. Some salts actually increase mortality as I will show below.

Salt is an essential nutrient, unlike sugar, people ate salt for eons. Historically, humans recognized it’s importance enough to use it as currency. Its reputation is found in phrases like “Worth his/her salt,” or “Not worth his/her salt”  since people were often paid in salt. In fact, the word salt is derived from the Latin salarium, or salary. In fact, you could die without salt. Like I said, you need salt, “the right kind of salt”.

Mainstream, table, restaurant, shaker and processed food salts are often mixed with anti-caking agents, many avoid salt all together in order to avoid these added chemicals. Salt takes a large portion of the mainstream American awareness. People think it is an unnecessary additive, and guided by their allopathic doctors and government dietary guidelines they seek products that are salt-free. The situation with salt is very similar to that with fat, most Americans seek fat-free products failing to recognize that not all fat is bad.

Like fat, salt is an essential nutrient to life. The food industry might have transformed most of the salt into an unhealthy form of salt, but this is not to say that salt is bad. This is the case with fat, protein, rice, etc.. Many foods that are very healthy and essential become denatured and poisoned when commercially processed and packaged.

 

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Insulin Resistance Article – Archived

Thursday, August 19th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-
Thanks to medscape.com for this invaluable article

Insulin Resistance

Background

Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. Insulin resistance has also been arbitrarily defined as the requirement of 200 or more units of insulin per day to attain glycemic control and to prevent ketosis.

The syndromes of insulin resistance actually make up a broad clinical spectrum, which includes obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, as well as an extreme insulin-resistant state. Many of these disorders are associated with various endocrine, metabolic, and genetic conditions. These syndromes may also be associated with immunological diseases and may exhibit distinct phenotypic characteristics.

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The metabolic syndrome —a state of insulin-resistance that is also known as either syndrome X or the dysmetabolic syndrome—has drawn the greatest attention because of its public health importance.

In an effort to clinically identify patients with insulin resistance, various organizations have developed diagnostic criteria. The most commonly used criteria in the United States are those of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III).

  • NCEP/ATP III criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome include the following (diagnosis is made when 3 or more are present):
    • Waist circumference of more than 102 cm in men or more than 88 cm in women
    • Fasting triglyceride level of 150 mg/dL or higher
    • Blood pressure level of 130/85 mm Hg or higher
    • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
    • Fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher (which has been changed to 100 mg/dL to reflect revised criteria for impaired fasting glucose [IFG])

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Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Oct;71(4):494-9. “Androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance in young men”

Wednesday, August 18th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Oct;71(4):494-9.

Androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance in young men.

González-González JG, Mancillas-Adame LG, Fernández-Reyes M, Gómez-Flores M, Lavalle-González FJ, Ocampo-Candiani J, Villarreal-Pérez JZ.

Servicio de Endocrinologia, Dr Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez University Hospital, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Ave. Madero y Gonzalitos S/N, Monterrey, Mexico. jgonzalezg@fm.uanl.mx

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have associated androgenetic alopecia (AGA) with severe young-age coronary artery disease and hypertension, and linked it to insulin resistance. We carried out a case-control study in age- and weight-matched young males to study the link between AGA and insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index or metabolic syndrome clinical manifestations.

METHODS: Eighty young males, 18-35 years old, with AGA > or = stage III in the Hamilton-Norwood classification, and 80 weight- and age-matched controls were included. Alopecia, glucose, serum insulin, HOMA-IR index, lipid profile and androgen levels, as well as metabolic syndrome criteria, were evaluated.

RESULTS: The HOMA-IR index was significantly higher in cases than controls. Nonobese cases had a higher mean diastolic blood pressure and a more frequent family history of AGA than nonobese controls. A borderline difference in the HOMA-IR index was found in obese AGA cases vs. obese controls [P = 0.055, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36-4.20 vs. 1.75-2.73]. Free testosterone values were significantly higher in controls than cases, regardless of body mass index (BMI). A statistically significant additive effect for obesity plus alopecia was found, with significant trends for insulin, the HOMA-IR index, lipids and free testosterone when BMI and alopecia status were used to classify the participants.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the recommendation for assessing insulin resistance and cardiovascular-related features and disorders in all young males with stage III or higher AGA, according to the Hamilton-Norwood classification.

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J Cardiovasc Risk. 2003 Jun;10(3):227-31. “Hair loss, insulin resistance, and heredity in middle-aged women…”

Tuesday, August 17th, 2010

-::- Note: The below is published here for archival purposes -::-

J Cardiovasc Risk. 2003 Jun;10(3):227-31.

Hair loss, insulin resistance, and heredity in middle-aged women. A population-based study.

Matilainen V, Laakso M, Hirsso P, Koskela P, Rajala U, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S.

Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu and Unit of General Practice, Central University Hospital of Oulu, Finland.

Abstract

CONTEXT: The association of androgenic alopecia (AGA) with insulin resistance, coronary artery disease and hypercholesterolemia has been previously reported in men, but no such association has been reported in women with female androgenic alopecia (AGA). Female AGA has usually been linked with hyper-androgenism and hirsutism and, most recently, also with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), even though epidemiological documentation of the latter association is scanty. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is quite common among Caucasian women, and its association with insulin resistance is well documented.

OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise estimation of the prevalence on female AGA and to describe its possible connections with insulin resistance linked parameters and with paternal and maternal family history of alopecia. A cross-sectional population based cohort survey was carried out in the City of Oulu, Finland in 1998.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: As a part of a population based cohort study the hair status of 324 women aged 63 years was assessed by a modification of Ludwig’s scale. The background data consisting of anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index, waist, hip and neck circumferences), smoking status, chronic diseases and their medication as well as the family history of AGA were collected by questionnaires and interviews made by study nurses and in clinical examination. Blood samples for laboratory tests were taken on the same occasion.

RESULTS: The prevalence of extensive loss of hair (at least grade II or III on Ludwig’s scale) was quite high (31.2%). The insulin resistance associated parameters, such as waist and neck circumferences, abdominal obesity measured by waist-to-hip ratio, mean insulin concentration (11.3 mU/l versus 9.95 mU/l, p=0.02) or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (1.80 versus 1.58, p=0.01), were significantly higher in women with extensive hair loss compared to those with normal hair or only minimal hair loss (grade I on Ludwig’s scale). The women belonging to the highest quintiles of neck or waist circumferences had significantly increased risk for extensive hair loss compared to those with normal hair or minimal hair loss, the unadjusted ORs being 2.25 (95% CI, 1.26-4.03) and 1.75 (95% CI, 1.00-3.07), respectively. Similarly in women with hyperinsulinemia (fs-insulin >10 mU/l), microalbuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio exceeding the highest microalbuminuria decile (>2.5 mg/mmol) and paternal history of AGA the ORs for alopecia were increased being 1.65 (95% CI, 1.02-2.67), 2.39 (95% CI, 1.21-4.73) and 2.08 (95% CI, 1.26-3.44). All of these ORs, except those for highest quintiles of waist and neck circumferences remained significant in multiple adjusted models.

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