Posts Tagged ‘Salt’

J Natl Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;82(12):837-40. “Hypertension induction in Dahl rats”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

J Natl Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;82(12):837-40.

Hypertension induction in Dahl rats.

Flowers SW, Jamal IA, Bogden J, Thanki K, Ballester H.

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Maplewood.

Abstract

There is experimental and epidemiologic evidence that some minerals and trace elements play a role in hypertension. We designed an experiment in which salt and water sources were manipulated to examine the possible impact of this relationship. A strain of rats (Dahl rats) known to become hypertensive with sodium chloride ingestion was used to study the effect of salt source and water source on the induction of hypertension.

The group on tap water and table salt had blood pressures (184 mmHg +/- 19) significantly higher than every other group in the experiment. The experimental animals receiving tap water plus table salt had the highest blood pressure levels, although they consumed the lowest quantity of sodium.

Analysis of the tap water samples showed “soft water” by analysis of calcium and magnesium concentration. This could adversely affect blood pressure.

The relatively high magnesium concentration in sun evaporated sea salt may play a protective role in hypertension induction. The zinc and copper present in tap water may play an exacerbating role.

(more…)

Clin Sci (Lond). 2009 Jun 2;117(1):1-11. “Salt and high blood pressure”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

Clin Sci (Lond). 2009 Jun 2;117(1):1-11.

Salt and high blood pressure.

Mohan S, Campbell NR.

Departments of Medicine and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
An automatic insert of some related ads:

Thanks for your patronage. Article continues below:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Abstract

HBP (high blood pressure) is the leading risk of death in the world. Unfortunately around the world, blood pressure levels are predicted to become even higher, especially in developing countries. High dietary salt is an important contributor to increased blood pressure. The present review evaluates the association between excess dietary salt intake and the importance of a population-based strategy to lower dietary salt, and also highlights some salt-reduction strategies from selected countries. Evidence from diverse sources spanning animal, epidemiology and human intervention studies demonstrate the association between salt intake and HBP. Furthermore, animal studies indicate that short-term interventions in humans may underestimate the health risks associated with high dietary sodium. Recent intervention studies have found decreases in cardiovascular events following reductions in dietary sodium. Salt intake is high in most countries and, therefore, strategies to lower salt intake could be an effective means to reduce the increasing burden of HBP and the associated cardiovascular disease. Effective collaborative partnerships between governments, the food industry, scientific organizations and healthcare organizations are essential to achieve the WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended population-wide decrease in salt consumption to less than 5 g/day. In the milieu of increasing cardiovascular disease worldwide, particularly in resource-constrained low- and middle-income countries, salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective strategies to combat the epidemic of HBP, associated cardiovascular disease and improve population health.

PMID: 19476440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Mar-Apr;52(5):363-82. “Reducing population salt intake worldwide”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Mar-Apr;52(5):363-82.

Reducing population salt intake worldwide: from evidence to implementation.

He FJ, MacGregor GA.

Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. f.he@qmul.ac.uk

Abstract

Raised blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, responsible for 62% of stroke and 49% of coronary heart disease. There is overwhelming evidence that dietary salt is the major cause of raised blood pressure and that a reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure, thereby, reducing blood pressure-related diseases.

Several lines of evidence including ecological, population, and prospective cohort studies, as well as outcome trials, demonstrate that a reduction in salt intake is related to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also suggests that a high salt intake may directly increase the risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, and renal disease; is associated with obesity through soft drink consumption; is related to renal stones and osteoporosis; is linked to the severity of asthma; and is probably a major cause of stomach cancer.

In most developed countries, a reduction in salt intake can be achieved by a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods by the food industry. In other countries where most of the salt consumed comes from salt added during cooking or from sauces, a public health campaign is needed to encourage consumers to use less salt. Several countries have already reduced salt intake. The challenge now is to spread this out to all other countries. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide will result in a major improvement in public health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20226955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

diovasc Dis. 1999 Jul-Aug;42(1):23-38. “Dietary salt reduction in hypertension”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

diovasc Dis. 1999 Jul-Aug;42(1):23-38.

Dietary salt reduction in hypertension–what is the evidence and why is it still controversial?

Chrysant GS, Bakir S, Oparil S.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Medicine, Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, 35294-0012, USA. gsc5@yahoo.com

Abstract

The link between sodium intake and hypertension remains controversial because of inconsistency between early epidemiologic studies, which showed a strong positive relationship between salt intake and blood pressure/incidence of hypertension, and more recent studies, which showed only modest decreases in blood pressure with sodium reduction, particularly in the normotensive population. In addition, there is clinical evidence that sodium is related to target organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy and renal disease.

Although the evidence available linking sodium intake and blood pressure in the general population is weak, sodium reduction has been shown to be useful in hypertensive patients, particularly salt-sensitive patients.

Whether dietary sodium reduction should be recommended for the general population remains questionable because of marginal benefit and the suggestion of possible deleterious effects on cardiovascular outcomes independent of blood pressure.

This paper will review the definition and methods used in determining salt sensitivity, the evidence linking sodium intake and target organ damage, and modern studies of salt and blood pressure.

(more…)

Am J Med 06;119(3):275. “Sodium Intake and Mortality”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

Volume 119, Issue 3, Pages 275.e7-275.e14 (March 2006)

Sodium Intake and Mortality in the NHANES II Follow-up Study

Hillel W. Cohen, MPH, DrPHCorresponding Author Informationemail address, Susan M. Hailpern, MS, DrPH, Jing Fang, MD, Michael H. Alderman, MD

Abstract

J Mol Med. 2008 Jun;86(6):729-34. “Aldosterone in salt-sensitive hypertension and metabolic syndrome”

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

J Mol Med. 2008 Jun;86(6):729-34. Epub 2008 Apr 25.

Aldosterone in salt-sensitive hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

Fujita T.

Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. fujita-dis@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome, which is caused by obesity, is now a global pandemic. Metabolic syndrome is an aggregation of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the development of these components of metabolic syndrome.

Concerning the mechanism for the development of hypertension in metabolic syndrome, the lack of insulin resistance in the kidney increases sodium reabsorption by hyperinsulinaemia, leading to sodium retention in the body, and resultant salt-sensitive hypertension.

Moreover, hyperaldosteronism, which is caused by adipocyte-derived aldosterone-releasing factors, induces not only salt-sensitive hypertension, but also proteinuria in obese hypertensive rats.

Salt loading markedly aggravates proteinuria and induces cardiac diastolic dysfunction in obese hypertensive rats, suggesting that salt and aldosterone exert unfavourable synergistic actions on the cardiovascular system, possibly through the overproduction of oxidative stress.

In turn, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are induced by adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, non-esterified fatty acids, angiotensinogen etc., can activate the mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor, in an aldosterone-independent fashion.

(more…)



Disclaimer: I must say this: The information presented herein is for informational purposes only. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements, making dietary changes, or before making any changes in prescribed medications.
All posts are strictly opinions meant to foster debate, education, comment, teaching, scholarship and research under the "fair use doctrine" in Section 107 of U.S. Code Title 17. No statement of fact is made and/or should be implied. Please verify all the articles on this site for yourself. The Information found here should in no way to be construed as medical advice. If You have a health issue please consult your professional medical provider. Everything here is the authors own personal opinion as reported by authors based on their personal perception and interpretation as a part of authors freedom of speech. Nothing reported here should be taken as medical advice, diagnosis or prescription; medical advice should only be taken from your health care provider. Consume the information found on this web site under your own responsibility. Please, do your own research; reach your own conclusions, and take personal responsibility and personal control of your health.